Energy-aware Trajectory Optimization of Connected and Automated Vehicle Platoons through a Signalized Intersection
Research Team: Michael Zhang (lead), Xiao Han, and Rui Ma
UC Campus(es): UC Davis
Problem Statement: Traﬃc signals, while serving an important function to coordinate vehicle movements through intersections, also cause frequent stops and delays, particularly when they are not properly timed. Such stops and delays contribute to significant amounts of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The recent development of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technology provides new opportunities to enable better control of vehicles and intersections, that in turn reduces fuel consumption and emissions. However, to realize these benefits will require rethinking the transportation system and how these vehicles interact with each other and with roadway infrastructure.
Project Description: In this paper, the researchers propose platoon-trajectory-optimization (PTO) to minimize the total fuel consumption of a CAV platoon through a signalized intersection. In this approach, all CAVs in one platoon are considered as a whole; that is, all other CAVs follow the trajectory of the leading one with a time delay and minimum safety gap, which is enabled by vehicle-to-vehicle communication. Moreover, the leading CAV in the platoon learns of the signal timing plan just after it enters the approach segment through vehicle-to-infrastructure communication. The researchers compare their PTO control with the other two controls, in which the leading vehicle adopts the optimal trajectory (LTO) or drive with maximum speed (AT), respectively, and the other vehicles follow the leading vehicle with a simplified Gipps’ car-following model. Furthermore, they extend the controls into multiple platoons by considering the interactions between the two platoons. The numerical results demonstrate that PTO has better performance than LTO and AT, particularly when CAVs have enough space and travel time to smooth their trajectories. The reduction of travel time and fuel consumption can be as high as 40% and 30% on average, respectively, in the studied cases, which shows the great potential of CAV technology in reducing congestion and negative environmental impact of automobile transportation.